African American communities after the civil war

The American Civil War commonly referred in the United States as the Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865. Its main objective was to determine survival of the independence or union for the Confederacy. Of the 34 states in 1861, seven slave states decided to secede from the United States of America. The south states decided to form the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, experienced growth and later composed of eleven states. Despite the growth, the Confederacy did not receive diplomatic recognition by all foreign country. The north remained loyal meaning that they did not secede .because of this they were referred to as the North or the union. The war commenced after slavery issue and most specifically the act of extending slavery up to the western .After four years of war between the Confederate and Union, the Confederacy ended and slavery was stopped. This led to the process of restoration of unity of the nation and reconstruction hence civil rights of the freed slaves were guaranteed.

This research paper looks into different aspects of the African Americans after the civil war. For several African American communities, the end of the Civil War and emancipation was a sign of renewal of hope: social mobility, economic opportunity, and political expectations.

Aside from these differences communities was soon to feel the changes all over United States of America. One of the most critical results after the civil war was the active involvement of African Americans in the economic, social life and politics of the South. The era was defined by their thirst for independence and equal rights in the law, both as individual citizens and for the completely black community.

Literature review

Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 became the commencement of reconstruction and continued until 1877[1]. It was composed of several complex strategies to solve the remaining issues of the aftermath of the war. The most critical of these was the three Reconstruction Amendments to the Constitution[2]. This has remained in effect to date. The Union viewed Reconstruction as a way to consolidate the Union victory by reuniting the Union[3]. Another objective was to give ex-Confederate states republican government and to end slavery[4]. President Johnson adopted lenient approach and saw the realization of the main goals of war as seen in 1865[5]. Each former rebel state rejected secession and accepted the Thirteenth Amendment. Strong Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism had stopped and that slaves were free[6]. The victory of the Union in the Civil War might have given approximately 4 million slaves their freedom; however rebuilding the South in the period of Reconstruction (1865-1877) brought significant challenges. During the regime of President Andrew Johnson between 1865 and 1866, legislatures from the southern state enacted black codes, which were restrictive to monitor labor and character of former slaves and other African Americans[7]


         Behrend, Justin. Reconstructing Democracy: Grassroots Black Politics in the Deep South After the Civil War. University of

Georgia Press, 2015.

[2]       MacIntyre, Donal, David Wilson, Elizabeth Yardley, and Liam Brolan. “The British Hitman: 1974–2013.” The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 53, no. 4 (2014): 325-340.

[3]      Butner, Bonita K. “The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Education of African Americans after the Civil War.” Christian Higher Education 4, no. 4 (2005): 265-276.

[4]        Diffley, Kathleen. Representing the Civil War and Reconstruction: From Uncle Tom to Uncle Remus. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

[5]      Behrend, Justin. Reconstructing Democracy: Grassroots Black Politics in the Deep South After the Civil War. University of Georgia Press, 2015.

[6]      Grobler, Jackie. “Memories of a Lost Cause. Comparing remembrance of the Civil War by Southerners to the Anglo-Boer War by Afrikaners.” Historia 52, no. 2 (2006): 199-226.

[7]     Online Education and Liberation: Models for Social Equality: Models for Social Equality (2010): 126.

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