Citizen Participation

Using chapters 5-10, explain the macro, social and psychological reasons for citizen participation. What kind of things of activities can organizations engage in that can help uplift citizen participation? What kind of leadership actions can they take?

Finally, analyzing the initial theories on participatory democracy and tranformative leadership, give me two recommendations that the authors of the book are not discussing.


Citizen participation is the active involvement of the citizens in the formulation and implementation of the public decision in a democratic process. Citizen participation, which is constituted in most of the constitutions of the global states provides the citizens with the opportunity to have a significant influence on the political, economic and social integration and developments in the country or community. Citizens get to exercise their constitutional mandate as a watch dog in the running of the business affairs and the formulation and implementation of the economic reforms. An informed and active public in the running of the government result in the fight for equity and fight against social and economic disparities and injustices. Citizen participation can be enhanced through public seminars and training and through intensive civic education on the need for the public to take active roles not only in exercising their voting rights, but also in the making major public decisions.


Citizenship defines belonging coupled with responsibility. Citizenship requires a level of patriotism and the need and desire to make a nation or community united and experience national political, social and economic growth. It is incumbent for good citizens to keep their mouth open. There is no second-class citizenship, and a system that integrates all the diversities among the citizens in the levels of participation in development creates a high sense of belonging and patriotism (Fagence, 2014). The citizens have the mandate and civic responsibility to undertake active involvement in the issues and affairs of the government to ensure accountability and be aware of organizations and government systems that can do nothing without money, and those who want to do everything with money. According to Albert Einstein, the world is considered a dangerous place, not because of those who engage in evil activities, but due to those who remain joy-riders and do absolutely nothing. The constitution provides a mechanism that the citizens can use to restrain the government. The engagement of the citizens in leadership and civic participation make them accountable on the leaders they elect and the essence of good governance. The levels of engagement and participation are dependent on the macro contextual, proximal psychological and the demographic factors.            

Citizen participation and engagement help significantly in the decision-making process and structures. The technocratic approach to decision making involves the experts in solving and making technical decisions on the societal challenges that affect the public…

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