Social factors have a significant influence on the intelligence level of an individual (Paul, 2002). Additionally, self-discipline plays a big role in predicting academic performance than IQ among students, according to findings made by Duckworth and Seligman (2005). Lhamon (2014) states that students require equal access to resources to enhance their academic and extracurricular activities. Provision of educational resources such as technology, excellent facilities, instructional materials and educators without segregation because of race, nationality or color is a right according to the Civil Rights Act (Lhamon, 2014). This article aims to review the relationship of social factors, self-discipline and equal opportunity to resources in enhancing the intelligence of students.
A research study conducted by Paul (2002) shows that stereotype threat was a major threat to academic performance among pupils. African-American and Latino students were found to score lower in math and science courses when reminded of their race and gender before the tests (Paul, 2002). Additionally, Lhamon (2014) investigations found that minority students were less engaged in the Advanced Placement courses in the New Hampshire school district; while black students in the 3-6 grade had a 4.5 chance than white students on placement in the Gifted and Talented (GATE) program (Lhamon, 2014). Therefore, these students had limited access to various academic resources and opportunities. In regards to gender, Paul (2002) review shows that high school students’ spatial skills results were worse when they were informed that boys are better in resolving spatial problems than girls due to genetic differences. The research concluded that the girls were motivated to confirm the assumption while the boys were confident about the assumption (Paul, 2002).
The stereotype threat and lack of better opportunities lower the self-esteem of the black and Latino students. Analysis of research results made by Duckworth and Seligman (2005) shows that self-esteem has more effect on educational performance than imaginative capacity. Therefore, the students are likely to have poor academic performance resulting from lack of opportunity and motivation from the education system. According to Paul (2002) review researchers found out that poor performance in black and white students was as a result of confirming negative stereotypes amongst them.
Paul (2002) states that the developing literature concerning stereotype threats reveals that performance is a blend of social factors. Paul (2002) adds that humans are social creatures who are affected by what they hear from other people about them…