Divided Cities

For this paper, please write a minimum of 5 pages (1.5” spaced) on your chosen “divided” city. 
Cities get divided by war, religion, politics, national boundaries–or by all of the above. Often a smaller city may be “nested” within a larger city as in the case of Sun City within Phoenix, or Old Delhi in Delhi, India. While some divisions are peaceful, others are conflicted. For example, are there divides in culture and lifestyles? Do the two sides WANT a wall or not? How do people move across boundaries? How does the economy work? Maybe the poor on one side work for the rich on the other (as in South African cities, even today). 
For this paper, choose your city. Then focus on one or two aspects of your chosen city. Economy? Logistics—how do people travel? Maybe you want to look at spread of powers: is one side or the other in control? 


References in addition to your page count. Provide a minimum of four references. While you will draw online for much of your information, please consult at least ONE journal article–this will point to areas of discussion. 

Due May 6th, Midnight. Preferably, you will submit a printed copy in my mailbox or under my door. You should be aware the 5th Floor gets locked up after 6.00 pm. Also submit a copy online via Blackboard.

Some suggestions for writing good papers:
• Start by telling us what this paper is about. Why is your topic important?
• Provide a time frame if relevant, this makes it easier for your reader; give us dates. Briefly, when did your city become divided? Any recent events worth noting?
• At the end, you might point to some underlying questions or discussion topics. 

The urban mosaic will continue to be a process of change. As a result, the immigrants cluster together and often mix with others where racial and ethnic groups are divided into slums and ghettos since they are not capable of fleeing to more livable neighborhoods. Cities comprise of various areas each with its nature attraction, function, architectural style, merits, and demerits. Less progress is being made since 1994 to change the segmented structure of South Africa cities to develop more functional, sustainable, and livable places (Calame and Charlesworth 45). Moreover, the fragmented form of urban development appears to have entrenched with the current patterns of settlement development on the periphery. As a result, the paper will present new evidence for the inequitable and inefficient spatial layout of cities and assess the primary reasons for the absence of substantial change. They comprise of economic forces, inertia, and weak spatial management. This paper will determine the major reasons of divided cities, negative consequences, and interventions which will bridge the gap through study Johannesburg.

A brief description of Johannesburg

Johannesburg is a Metropolitan municipality which is situated in Gauteng Province. Moreover, it is one of the most advanced commercial cities in Africa, the engine room of South Africa and regional economy. Johannesburg is unique, has African character, possess global class infrastructure in fields of transportation, power, telecommunication and water, and with world-class competitive educational and healthcare facilities (Murray 67). On the contrary, the city is one with dissimilarity since it is home to both poor and wealthy individuals, refugees and residents, emerging enterprises and global corporations. The demographics reveal an ethnically diverse and large metropolitan area. Since it is the biggest city in South Africa, the population has a long history of international and local migration. Therefore, Johannesburg has about 5 million people who account for thirty-six percent of Gauteng’s and 8 percent of the national population (Murray 67). Moreover, in the past decade, the city has developed immensely. It has been the primary contributor as people continue to migrate from other provinces…

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