Perspective 1: Choosing the sex of a child fails to uphold the inherent dignity of all human beings. Allowing gender selection means allowing discrimination against people according to their gender, and choosing the gender of one’s child means that the gender not chosen is esteemed to be of lesser value.
Perspective 2:Choosing the sex of one’s child is an expression of parents’ reproductive autonomy.Therefore, allowing gender selection is a recognition of the dignity of human beings who have the ability to reason and carry out significant life decisions. The dignity of the parents, therefore,is protected by allowing them to choose the sex of their child.
Perspective 3: Society values the inherent worth of all children, thus, there are limits to the choices parents should be able to make. Parents who opt for gender selection could therefore be seen as failing to uphold the moral norms and values of society.Thus, parents who choose the sex of their children,for non-medical reasons, are judged to have lost dignity in the eyes of society.
As you read the articles in the links below, analyse the understanding of human dignity that underpins the arguments and consider how this understanding of human dignity is being brought to bear on the question of gender selection. Note that you may find two authors of different ethical positions explaining dignity in a similar way or in more than one way such that it could fit into the same quadrant as another author or into several quadrants. Look carefully for the nuances and underlying assumptions that further qualify the understandings of human dignity such that the authors nonetheless arrive at different ethical positions.
Human dignity is imperative and must be respected at the individual, national, and international levels. The dignity of a person is a human right that is protected by various provisions of the international law, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights formulated in 1948. Observing human dignity entails respecting a status that is first and cannot be taken for granted. Many nations observe that the inherent dignity and equality are absolute rights of every member of the human species and is the basis of freedom of justice and peace worldwide. Human dignity is closely linked to identity. It defines who we are and differentiates us from other animals. Suggestively, without dignity, none of the protections found in various human rights mechanisms can have real meaning. The principle of human dignity as a universal affirmation has faced various challenges. The idea of dignity is reliant on various things and consequences that are accounted for in various ways.
The Bali nine case experienced in Indonesia are among examples where human dignity was taken for granted. The case involved a group of Australian citizens who traveled to Bali in April 2005. The Australian Federal Police passed intelligence to the Indonesian police that there was a plot by nine Australia nationals to smuggle heroin out of Bali. The nine persons were arrested and found to hold a significant amount of heroin (Lynch 526). The Indonesian law dictates that any violation of the Narcotics laws is punishable with death, life imprisonment, or twenty years in jail and fines of up to one billion Rupiah for violation of Article 82 (1)(a), for Article 78(1)(a) it is ten years in jail and a fine of up to five hundred million (Lynch 526). When the Australians were arrested, diplomatic approaches were taken to avoid capital punishment for the Bali 9. Despite the efforts by various Australian agencies, on February 2006 two of the Australian citizens Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran were sentenced to death for possession and exportation of Heroin in an organized ring and the others to life imprisonment (Lynch 527). Despite appeals for the death sentences, the Supreme Court did not reduce punishment for the Australians. On April 29, 2015, the two individuals on death row were executed by a firing squad. Resultantly, how the issue was handled presents a major blow to the concept of human dignity considering the reform the group had undergone. The ten years spent in prison by the two persons were marked by the effectiveness of the Indonesian rehabilitation system. The ideology of human dignity as a multidimensional concept that corresponds to the diversity of human conceptualization and of various situations makes it difficult for people to draw conclusions of various cases. Despite this, the multidimensional view is important because it provides a variety of options for people to interpret cases that present a dilemma. In the case of the Bali 9 there are two perspectives that can be used to approach the concept of human dignity; the first perspective can be addressed that people on death row have the inherent dignity of any other human being…