Intelligence-led Policing


Word limit = 2,000 words

Minimum number of sources = 15

Please choose one of the following essay questions:

  1. What is intelligence-led policing (ILP)? What strengths and weaknesses have been identified with this model of policing? Support your arguments with examples from police departments/forces using ILP.

Here are some sources to get you started:

  • DL Carter and JG Carter, ‘Intelligence-Led Policing’, Criminal Justice Policy Review, vol. 20(3), 2009, pp. 310-325.
  • S Darroch and L Mazerolle, ‘Intelligence-Led Policing’, Police Quarterly, vol. 16(1), 2013, pp. 3-37.
  • A James, ‘Forward to the past: reinventing intelligence-led policing in Britain’, Police Practice and Research, vol. 15(1), 2014, pp. 75-88.
  • JG Carter and SW Phillips, ‘Intelligence-led policing and forces of organisational change in the USA’, Policing and Society, vol. 25(4), 2015, pp. 333-357.

Note: you may use the above sources and they count towards your total number of minimum sources -15.


  • SPIES!

Choose a spy from the list below –

  1. John Walker (US Naval Communications Officer)
  2. Aldrich Ames (CIA)
  3. Robert Hanssen (FBI)
  4. Harold “Kim” Philby (MI6)
  5. Guy Burgess (MI5)
  6. Dmitriy Polyakov (GRU Major-General)
  7. Oleg Penkovskiy (GRU Colonel)

Discuss your chosen spy and examine their activities, actions and motivations for betraying their home countries. Explore how and why they were discovered and the consequences of their actions and activities.

In your answer include –

  • A brief biography of your chosen person including their motivations for spying on their home countries
  • Discuss what they did and how (for example: stealing files, passing them to a handler)
  • Discuss any techniques, tactics and operational security measures used by them
  • Examine why/how they were discovered by their agency.
  • Repercussions and consequences from their activities (for example, agents executed)
  • Also examine anylessons learned

Note: for some of the spies, the information will be unknown or incomplete. If this is the case for your choice simply state/mention this in your essay then continue with what is known. Although, if there is conflicting or contradictory evidence, this is worth exploring.


  • Examine the issue of bias within the field of intelligence. Using examples demonstrate how bias can affect the final intelligence product and discuss options to overcome the issue.


In the 1990s, there was a rapid growth and development of the concepts of crime control and policing. As a result, North America was the second to replicate the concept of community-based policing, after its initial application in Britain.[1]  Later in the early 90s, there was a rapid adoption of crime control through policing strategies. The traditional concept of community policing gave rise to the present day intelligence-led policing that traces its origin in the UK. It was developed as a result of the knowledge that arose that the police were using the time-consuming strategy of community policing to target the crime perpetrators and also using a lot of time addressing and responding to crime.  As an effort to replicate the UK’s effort to improve the police department, America’s Audit Commission in 1993 laid down the strategies of improving policing through the adoption of intelligence strategies, the conception of improving security surveillance and the use of intelligent informants in targeting the major crime perpetrators.[2] The ultimate objective was to enhance the ways in which the police could mitigate crime as opposed to the traditional strategies that were focusing on strategies for responding to crime.

As technology advances, the crime techniques used by offenders also advances. Technology has been said to have had the primary disadvantage of increasing the occurrence of crime. Technology also increased the amount of information available at police databases that required advanced ways of analyzing to obtain useful information. [3]In Australia, there has been a recent development of police intelligence steps that have been made in response to the digital revolution. In any country that has adopted intelligence-led policing, despite the challenges that undermine the application of intelligence in policing, there is a common agreement on the benefit of intelligence-led policing in combating crime. The adoption of ILP has been facilitated with the boom and sprouting of complex intelligence analytical strategies and tools. For example, in the United States’ police departments, the appreciation of ILP has been used as a move to utilize the available generic data handling strategies. Intelligence-led policing programs that are used in the global policing arena have their origin in the traditional problem policing and community policing. They are the main basis of the modern policing. The ILP derives strength and the need for the adoption, from the growing need for information to mitigate risk in the global society.

The concept of ILP                 The term Intelligence-led policing denoted as ILP, has not accepted standard definition, but the common description used in the modern policing arena is that it is a model that is constructed around management and assessment of risks…

[1] Adrian James, ‘Forward to The Past: Reinventing Intelligence-Led Policing in Britain’ (2013) 15 Police Practice and Research.

[2] Jeremy G. Carter and Scott W. Phillips, ‘Intelligence-Led Policing and Forces of Organizational Change in The USA’ (2013) 25 Policing and Society.

[3] Jaroslav Kulíšek, ‘Military Deception’ (2012) 21 VR.

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