Renewable Energy Supports Mechanisms

Write a 2500-word essay comparing renewable energy support mechanisms in at least 2 countries.UK and ROI cannot be used as example countries. The supported technology can be electricity, transport or heat at any scale. The essay should be a critical review and comparison of the support mechanisms and should be informed by research& legislation. Personal opinion on improvements or a better mechanism from your research is also encouraged.

 Your essay should refer to, but is not limited to, the following topics

Introduction

Legislative context.

Identification and description of support mechanisms (e.g., feed in Tariffs, quota systems, tax breaks, etc.)

 Economic factors

Technical constraints

Political constraints

Suggestions for improvement

Introduction

The evolution of the renewable energy sector in the recent decades shows that the global capacity of all installed technologies has increased substantially. Additionally, many countries have endorsed the supporting policies in various regions of the world (REN21, 2014). The renewable energy support mechanisms are instruments that are employed to promote the market utilization of energy from renewable sources (Herczeg, 2012). The global trend indicates increased investment, capacity, and integration across various sectors in the renewable energy industry. The rapid growth can be attributed to the different energy crises and the economic downturns that instigated the importance of sustainable sources of power for national and economic security. Another concept is the achievements made by pioneer countries such as the USA, Germany, Spain, and Denmark in the fields of technological advancement and economies of scale. Such countries set a platform for an expansive market. Also, the increased emphasis on mitigating climate change and endorsing its impact further promotes the use of renewable energy. The contribution of the industry to global heat, power, and transport has had a steady increase with growth in universal population and energy demand (REN21, 2014). The electricity sector provides the most support mechanisms that were established by the implementation of the EU Directive 2001/77/EC. The directive ensures that member states participate in the industry using national support systems (REN21, 2014). The effectiveness of renewable energy support mechanisms requires bold and transformative solutions to counter climate change while maximizing benefits for the people. Political leadership plays an imperative role in the implementation of such strategies, as well as international collaborations to meet some goals. Technological platforms that facilitate growth and development of the industry are also considerations made in the support mechanisms. A critical approach to Germany and France provides insights on the different approaches used by various countries to uphold the renewable energy support mechanisms.

Legislative Context

Germany and France rely on renewable sources of energy for both domestic and industrial use. In Germany, the lawmaking aspects of the industry are endorsed in The Renewable Energy Sources Act; Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) that was enacted in 2000 (REN21, 2014). The act provides a platform for the German renewable energy support mechanism. It facilitates the production of electricity from various sources that include the wind, water, solar, biomass, geothermal power, and sewage gas combustion (CMS, 2013). In France, the production of energy from renewable sources is mandated by Program Law no. 2009-967 that was enacted on 3 August 2009. Article two of the program law states that 23% of the electric energy consumed by 2020 in the country, should be generated from renewable energy sources. In contrast, the German EEG estimated that 25% of the energy consumed in the country in 2013 was from renewable energy (CMS, 2013). Although, the estimations made by France are on a long time basis, the German EEG undergoes changes every three to four years.

Identification and Description of Support Mechanisms

Feed-In Tariffs            

Feed-in tariffs are strategies used to enhance investment in the alternative renewable energy sector, by offering incentives through long-term contracts to producers, depending on the technology of production used (Herczeg, 2012). The German EEG ensures that there is a fixed feed-in tariff that is issued to operators generating electricity from these sources. The tariff depends on the type and capacity of production as well as the date of its commissioning…

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