Stereotypes in American newspapers gender and racial

Stereotype is the way individuals organize their knowledge about the world around them by simplifying and sorting information they receive. They create schemes that are cognitive, which represent reality displaying its most fundamental and typical properties and elements. These schemes define the purpose of our worldview and have a critical influence on social cognition – situation, anticipation, and understanding and emotion control.

In this work, attention will be paid to mass media contribution to gender and race stereotypes. Mass media is critical amongst others, in disseminating information on education and entertainment. However, mass media not only gives people entertainment and information, but also affects lives of people by modifying their attitudes, beliefs and opinions.

Commercials are the major source of stereotyping against gender; this is because they are concerned to the specific: female or male target. Their aim is the satisfaction of and their creation.

First, women are frequently presented in commercials. This is because they are perceived as responsible for carrying out day-day purchases. Generally, men advertise investments, cigarettes, business products or cars, while on the other hand women are shown in the commercials adverts with domestic products and cosmetics. Of interest to observe is that men are usually shown outdoors while women are portrayed in the home or domestic environment. This act lowers the viewers estimation of the intelligence of women wile men’s portrayal evokes positive associations. Another fundamental difference to observe is the phenomenon of face-ism in the commercials adverts. This involves showing the whole figure in case of women while on the other hand men are shown in close-up shots. If both women and men are shown in the commercials together, they are usually shown as a couple of marriage. A subtext of sex is also frequently used even if the product being advertised has nothing in erotic sphere…

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