Synthesize a 15-Source Literature Review

Before starting the Signature Assignment, be sure you have sourced at least 15 current (within the past five years) empirical, theoretical, or conceptual articles. In the Signature Assignment, you will present a coherent survey of each article and synthesize a collective discussion of the sources under coherent research theme headings.

If you retain the same research focus for your research prospectus, this assignment may serve as an initial draft of one section of the literature review in your dissertation research proposal. Remember from Week 4 that to review a source means to first survey the source for the categories noted in your literature review matrix/table. Then complete the review of each source as you articulate the source within the context of the additional sources grouped within your discussion.

For this assignment, your final submission should ensure the following criteria are met:

  • Review (survey and synthesize) 15 research articles from peer-reviewed scholarly sources with at least 11 sources being empirical articles and no more than 4 sources from the theoretical literature and other forms of non-peer-reviewed grey literature, which may include organizational research reports, governmental analyses, etc.

Introduction

Advancement of human civilization has resulted in increased focus and acceptance of democracy as the most effective means of governing and administrating human societies. Resultantly, most nations across the globe have developed into democracies, while several, especially in Africa, are struggling in adopting democratic values in how the countries are run. Democracy alludes to a multi-faceted concept that involves the rule of the people by the people, with a key focus on political and social rights. These range from free and fair elections to accountability and transparency in how governance is practiced and how civil societies develop (Bezemer & Jong-A-Pin, 2013). Nevertheless, a review of the democratic state across the globe shows that each nation has adopted unique approaches to how the democratic process is achieved and the democratic principles are practiced. These differences are largely evident in the popular control and political equality that exist within nations. In this context, democratic nations have a substantial focus on upholding the inherent human rights and values (Adepoju, 2000). Africa has been subject to many historical misfortunes, including slavery and colonization and the situation is aggravated by the lack of effective democracies after most of the countries became independent. In this context, African countries continue to face challenges associated with military dictatorship, coup d’état, civil wars, and rebellions that have slowed down the transition to full democracies. Even in countries that substantially advanced in adopting democratic values and principles, there are numerous challenges faced due to the lack of trustworthy governments and fraud election systems (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2017). This phenomenon is characterized by the lack of respect for constitutional rules and dictatorship that involves the removal of presidential term limits in the constitutional provisions. Reviews by Asongu and Nwachukwu (2017) stress that democratic governance in the continent, coupled with respect for the constitution is among the inherent factors that will guarantee sustainable development.

The globalization phenomenon has had a substantial impact on how democracy is embraced globally. Fundamentally, the interaction with people from other nations and increased access to information has influenced the need for people served by oppressive governments to seek liberation (Mahembe & Engelbrecht, 2014). The liberation efforts in Africa are exemplified by movements such as the Arab Spring, which utilized the globalization factors such as the advancement of technological solutions to foster the transition to better governance systems that are premised on democratic ideologies (Adepoju, 2000). The Arab Spring contributed substantially to the liberalization of countries in North Africa, but major challenges are experienced in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, governments…

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