TESOL Data Analysis Project

Assignment

Major: TESOL

Paper type: Data analysis project

Word count: (4000 words)

Your assignment should cover

  1. background theory relevant to your topic,
  2. analysis of your data,
  3. discussion of your analysis in relation to previous research on your topic,
  4. suggestions for teaching using your data. The teaching suggestions should include a description of the target learner group, the aim of the activity, and a sample of the material you would use in the activity, illustrating how you have used your data analysis to inform your teaching.

You should devote about one quarter of your assignment to each of these areas. 50% of the grade for this assignment will be allocated to your analysis and the discussion of your analysis. The other 50% will be allocated to your discussion of background theory and suggestions for language teaching.

Use APA referencing for your assignment.

Choose ONE topic from below eight topics

  1. Language and Identity

What are some the ways in which the use of language reflects identity? This might, for example, include the use of particular vocabulary, the use of a particular voice quality, or through the way which you express a particular point of view. Choose spoken or written data which you think reflects ways in which language reflects identity. The data much be naturally occurring, authentic (i.e. not text-book or rehearsed) examples of spoken or written language. You can use text message data, on line chat, if you wish, or social media data such Facebook or Twitter.

Use Chapter 2 of Discourse analysis (Paltridge, 2012) as the starting point for this assignment. Also:

Block, D. (2007). Second language identities. London: Continuum. Chapter 2. Identities in the social sciences today

LaBelle, S. (2011). Language and identity. in A. Mooney, L. Thomas, S. Wareing, J. Stilwell Peccei, S. LaBelle, B. E. Henriksen, E. Eppler, A. Irwin, P. Pichler, P. Preece & S. Soden (Eds.), Language, society and power, Third edition (pp. 173-188).  London: Routledge (in electronic reserve)

Paltridge, B. (2015). Language, identity and communities of practice. In D. Djenar, A. Mahboob, & K. Cruickshank (Eds.), Language and identity across modes of communication (pp. 15-25). Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton.

Tagg, C. (2012). Discourse of text messaging. London: Continuum. Chapter 8. Performing identity through text messaging. (in electronic reserve)

  • Language and gender

What are some the ways in which the use of language is influenced by gender? Analyze an interaction where you think this is relevant. Identify aspects of the conversation which you think reflect the speakers’ ‘gendered identity’. This might, for example, be through the use of a particular voice quality, the things they talk about, or the ways in which the speakers express a particular point of view. The data much be naturally occurring, authentic (i.e. not text-book or rehearsed) examples of spoken language. You can use text message data, on line chat, if you wish, or social media data such Facebook or Twitter. Use Chapter 2 of Discourse analysis (Paltridge, 2012) as the starting point for this assignment. Also:

Baker, P. (2008). Sexed texts:  Language, gender and sexuality. London: Equinox.

Jule, A.  (2017). A beginner’s guide to language and gender. Second edition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Sunderland, J. & Litosseliti, L. (2002). Gender identity and discourse analysis: Theoretical and empirical considerations. In L. Litosseliti & J. Sunderland (Eds.), Gender identity and discourse analysis (pp.1-39). Amsterdam: John Benjamins..

Tagg, C. (2012). Discourse of text messaging. London: Continuum. Chapter 8. Performing identity through text messaging. (in electronic reserve)

  • Speech act analysis

Collect several examples of naturally occurring, authentic (i.e. not text-book or rehearsed) spoken or written language. You can use text message data, on line chat, if you wish, or social media data such Facebook or Twitter. Try to collect complete examples, rather than just a section of a text. Carry out an analysis of your texts concentrating on direct and indirect speech acts and Grice’s maxims.

Use Chapter 3 of Discourse analysis (Paltridge, 2012) as the starting point for this assignment. Also:

Chapman, S. (2011). Pragmatics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Culpeper, J. & Haugh, M. (2014). Pragmatics and the English language. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter 6. Pragmatic acts.

Cutting, J. (2008), Pragmatics and discourse. A resource book for students. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.

Huang, Y. (2007), Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lo Castro, V. (2003), An introduction to pragmatics. Social action for language teachers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Lo Castro, V. (2011), Pragmatics for language educators. A sociolinguistic perspective. London: Routledge

O’Keefe, A., Clancy, B. & Adolphs, S. (2011). Introducing pragmatics in use. London: Routledge.

  1. Politeness theory

Collect several examples of naturally occurring, authentic (i.e. not text-book or rehearsed) language. Try to collect complete examples, rather than just a section of a spoken text. You can use text message data, on line chat, if you wish, or social media data such Facebook or Twitter. Carry out an analysis of your texts concentrating on involvement and independence (or in Brown and Levinson’s terms positive and negative politeness). That is, look for strategies which show closeness, intimacy, rapport and solidarity (involvement strategies/positive politeness) and strategies which give the other person choices and allow them to maintain their freedom (independence strategies/negative politeness). How do the speakers use language to do this? How could you focus on involvement and independence strategies in your language teaching?

Use Chapter 3 of Discourse analysis (Paltridge, 2012) as the starting point for this assignment. Look at Paltridge (2000, Chapter 3) for examples of linguistic strategies your speakers might use to show involvement and independence. Also:

Bargiela-Chiappini, F. & Kadar, D. (2010) (eds). Politeness across cultures. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Brown, G. & Levinson, S. (2006). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (Eds.), The discourse reader. Second edition. London: Routledge.

Cutting, J. (2008). Pragmatics and discourse. A resource book for students. Second edition. London: Routledge.

Eelen, G. (2001). A critique of politeness theories. Manchester, UK: St Jerome Publishing.

Grundy, P. (2008). Doing pragmatics. Third edition. London: Hodder. Chapter 9. Politeness phenomena.

Kadar, D. & Haugh, M. (2013). Understanding politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kadar, D. & Mills, S. (eds) (2011), Politeness in East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

         Leech, G. (2014). The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Paltridge, B. (2000). Making sense of discourse analysis. Gold Coast, Queensland: Antipodean Educational Enterprises. Chapter 3.

Scollon, R., Wong-Scollon, S. & Jones, R. (2012), Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Third edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Watts, R.J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Genre analysis

Collect a set of written texts (4-10) that you would like to teach. Identify:

  • the macro-genre
  • the micro-genres in the texts     
  • the schematic stages of the macro-genre
  • the schematic structures of the micro-genres

Discuss your analysis in relation to background theory and classroom practice. Use these headings for your assignment:

  • Background theory
  • Description of the texts
  • Analysis of the texts
  • Discussion of the analysis
  • Classroom practice

You should look at 4-10 texts, depending on the length of the texts. If the texts are short, say 300-400 words each, then 8-10 texts are sufficient. If the texts are longer, say 1000 words texts, 4-5 texts are more appropriate. You must hand in copies of the texts you have analyzed for this assignment.

You need to show the schematic stages for each of your texts (in terms of the macro-genre – such as letter to the editor, academic essay etc) and the schematic structures of the micro-genres (such as recount, report, exposition etc) for each of your texts, as per the handout given out in class.  For examples of this kind of analysis see:

Watanabe, H. (2016). Genre analysis of writing tasks in Japanese university entrance examinations. Language Testing in Asia, 6,4, 1-14. (in electronic reserve)

Watanabe, H. (2017). An examination of written genres in English language textbooks in Japan. The Journal of Asia EFL, 14, 1, 64-80. (in electronic reserve)

Wang, W. (2007). The notions of genre and micro-genre in contrastive rhetorical research: Newspapers commentaries on the events of September 11th. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 2, 1, 83-117. (in electronic reserve)

Wang, W. (2004). A contrastive analysis of letters to the editor In Chinese and English. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 27, 2, 72-88. (in electronic reserve)

Useful references include:

Bawarshi, A. & M. J. Reiff, (2010). Genre: An introduction to history, theory, research, and pedagogy. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.

Derewianka, B. (1991). Exploring how texts work. Sydney: Primary English Teaching Association.

Hyland, K. (2004). Genre and second language writing. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Hyon, S. (2018). Introducing genre and English for specific purposes. London: Routledge.

Martin, J.R. & Rose, D. (2008). Genre relations: Mapping culture. London: Equiniox.

Paltridge, B. (2000). Making sense of discourse analysis. Gold Coast, Queensland: Antipodean Educational Enterprises

Paltridge, B. (2001). Genre and the language learning classroom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Rose, D. (2012). Genre in the Sydney school. In J. P. Gee & M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 209-225). London: Routledge.

Rose, D. & Martin, J. R. (2012). Learning to write/reading to learn: Genre, knowledge and pedagogy in the Sydney school. London: Equinox.

Woodward-Kron, R. (2005). The role of genre and embedded genres in tertiary students’ writing. Prospect 20, 3, 24-41.

See also Canvas for further readings

  • Multimodal discourse analysis

Collect examples of web pages from an Internet site that you regularly visit. Analyse the pages using Bateman’s (2008) Genre and Multimodality framework presented in Chapter 8 of Discourse analysis (Paltridge 2012). Or you can analyze a movie trailer using Maier’s (2011) framework, also in Chapter 8 of Discourse Analysis (Paltridge 2012). Look at Bezemer and Jewitt. (2010), Kress and van Leeuwen (2006), and Machin (2007) as further starting points for this assignment. Also Iedema (2001) and Baldry and Thibault (2005) for film genres. Discuss multimodal discourse analysis more broadly in the background section of your assignment as well as the specific framework you are using for your analysis.

References

Baldry, A., and Thibault, P. J. (2005), Multimodal transcription and text analysis. London: Equinox.

Bateman, J. A. (2008), Multimodality and genre:A foundation for the systematic analysis of multimodal documents. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bezemer, J. & Jewitt, C. (2010). Multimodal analysis: Key issues. in L. Litosseliti (Ed.), Research methods in linguistics (pp. 180-197). London: Continuum.

Iedema, R. (2001). Analysing film and television: A social semiotic account of Hospital: An Unhealthy Business. In T. van Leeuwen & C. Jewitt (Eds.), The handbook of visual analysis (pp. 183-204). Los Angeles: Sage.

Jewitt, C. (ed), (2014). The Routledge handbook of multimodal analysis. Second edition. London: Routledge.

Kress, G. & van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Second edition. London: Routledge.

Machin, D. (2007). Introduction to multimodal analysis. London: Bloomsbury.

Maier, C.D. (2009). Visual evaluation in film trailers. Visual Communication, 8, 2, 159-180.

Maier, C.D. (2011). Structure and function in the generic staging of film trailers. In R. Piazza, M. Bednarek & F. Rossi (Eds.), Telecinematic discourse: Approaches to the language of films and television series (pp. 141-158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

See also Canvas for further readings

  • Discourse and digital media

Choose ONE of the following topics:

  1. Read Page’s (2012) discussion of small stories in Facebook status updates in Chapter 4 of her book. Look for examples of these on Facebook pages and consider to what extent your observations compare with her comments on them.
  • Collect a set of tweets on Twitter which contain personal and business apologies. To what extent are apologies in personal and business threads similar to or different from each other? Compare your analysis to the observations made by Page (2014) on this.
  • Collect a set of YouTube comments and analyse them according to the Initiation, Response and Follow Up framework discussed in this chapter. Compare your analysis with Benson’s (2016) analysis of YouTube comments in Chapter 6 of his book.
  • Collect a set of text messages and examine them for spelling variation. Group them into the categories shown in Table 10. 1 in this chapter. Read Tagg et al (2014) and discuss the extent to which the examples you found fit with their argument – or not.

References

Benson, P. (2016), The Discourse of YouTube: Multimodal Text in a Global Age. London: Routledge. Chapter 6. Producing YouTube texts.

Jones, R., Chick, A. & Hafner, C. A. (Eds.), (2015). Discourse and Digital Practices; Doing Discourse Analysis in the Digital Age. London: Routledge

Page, R. (2012), Stories and Social Media: Identities and Interaction. London: Routledge. Chapter 4. Storytelling styles in Facebook updates.

Page, R. (2014), ‘Saying ‘sorry’: Corporate apologies posted on Twitter’, Journal of Pragmatics, 62, 30-45.

Page, R., Barton, D., Unger, J. W. & Zappavigna, M. (2014). Researching Language and Social Media. London: Routledge.

Tagg, C., Baron, A. and Rayson, P. (2014), ‘ “i didn’t spel that wrong did i. Oops” Analysis and normalisation of SMS spelling variation,’ Lingvisticae Investigationes, 35, 367–388.

Unger, J. (2020). Digitally mediated discourse analysis. In C. Hart (ed) Researching Discourse: A Practical Guide to (Critical) Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.

See also Canvas for further readings

  • Critical discourse analysis

Choose an authentic text which you feel would be useful to examine from a critical perspective. Analyze it from the point of view of genre framing, foregrounding, backgrounding, agency and presupposition. Link your analysis to a discussion of how you feel the text aims to ‘position’ its readers. How could you use this analysis in your language teaching? Read Huckin (1997) on critical discourse analysis to help with this as well as Paltridge (2000, 2012) and Lin (2014).

References

Huckin, T.N. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. Miller (Ed.), Functional approaches to written text: Classroom applications (pp. 78-92).Washington, DC: United States Information Agency. (in electronic reserve)

Lin, A. (2014). Critical discourse analysis in applied linguistics: A methodological review. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34, 213-232. (in electronic reserve)

Mahboob, A. & Paltridge, B. (2012). Critical discourse analysis and critical applied linguistics. In C. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Oxford: Wiley- Blackwell. (in electronic reserve)

Paltridge, B. (2000). Making sense of discourse analysis. Gold Coast, Queensland: Antipodean Educational Enterprises. Chapter 8.

Paltridge, B. (2012). Discourse analysis. London: Bloomsbury. Chapter 9. Critical Discourse Analysis

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