The Causes of Plagiarism among ESL Students

Preparation: 20%

In this subject you are given the opportunity to receive marks for the planning work you do for your essay. You will receive marks for an essay plan, a paragraph plan and an introduction. You will need to choose one of the Essay questions below.

Submit the three preparation items: the Starting Plan, Paragraph Plan and Introduction to your teacher in class by the due date.

Use the Marking Criteria and Feedback below to guide you and for editing.

Starting Plan for the Essay: 10%

The essay plan will include the essay question, your thesis statement, the overview, at least two supporting arguments, and evidence from the reading you have done. 

Instructions:

1. Use the essay plan below

2. Write the question as given to you, not your own interpretation or summary of the essay question.

3 The thesis statement should actually be an argument.

4 Each argument that you put into the first column should be in a FULL sentence, NOT a heading. Each argument should be an academic opinion.

For example:

Lack of cultural knowledge can cause a mismatch of expectations between lecturers and students. ☺

Situation one – lack of cultural knowledge  ☹ (this is a heading not an argument)

Starting Plan

Essay question   Why has it been claimed that students who use English as a second language are more likely to plagiarise?  
Thesis statement   Students that speak English as a second language are more likely to plagiarise due to knowledge, English language skills and difficulty of task/ text difficulty.  
Overview The essay will explain why ESL students are more susceptible to plagiarise. It will have an introduction that shows the thesis statement and what the essay will contain. It will review a study made to students from hong kong analysing their understanding of plagiarising, their English language skills. Secondly it will be discussed about the lack of explanation of plagiarism and how that may make student fall into plagiarising. As well it will be talked about the task difficulty that may be too hard for a student to do it in a language that is not the first and may not be fluent.  
Arguments  EvidenceResources
Knowledge              There are concerns of various authors that instead of willingness of committing a fraud, it could be that in their home institution things are done differently, they could have their own style of writing that does not relate to plagiarism when not referencing.Whenever a term is too basic, it may not be explained, but somebody like an international student, may not even have knowledge of this basic terms and can lead the student to commit plagiarism. Interviews with international students in which they explain how plagiarism has not been explained and for many of them the term or the effect is different in their home institution.There are studies that conclude with the idea that for first year international students, plagiarism is more important in the sense of their personal integrity, rather than for legal purposes. Valentine, K. (2006), ‘Plagiarism as literacy practice: recognizing and rethinking ethical binaries’, College Composition and Communication, vol. (58), no. (1), pp. 89–109   Lillis, T (1999), ‘Whose “common sense”? Essayist literacy and the institutional practice of mystery’, Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues, pp. 127–147.   Wilson, Kate. (1997), ‘Can note-taking solve the plagiphrasing problem?’, vol.(15), no.(1), pp.43-52.   Glenn, D, (1993), ‘Perspectives on plagiarism from ESL students in Hong Kong’, Journal of Second Language Writing, vol. (2), no.(1), p. 142.
English language skills              Hendricks (2000) believes students that struggle expressing their ideas and lacks confidence using their own words tends to plagiarise more.Amsberry (2009) Explains students face the hardship of studying in a language that is not their first language, therefore, they may not be fluent and they are expected to write in a new form of discourse. In an effort to overcome these linguistic hurdles, students may engage in textual borrowing practices considered inappropriate in the American educational system.    Hendricks, M., & Quinn, L. (2000). Teaching referencing as an introduction to epistemological empowerment. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(4), 447.   Dawn, A., (2009), Deconstructing Plagiarism: International Students and Textual Borrowing Practices, pp. 31-44.    
difficulty of task/ text difficulty              This authors: Campbell, 1990, Keck, 2006, Roig, 1999 and Shi, 2004. State that one of the reasons for students who use English as a second language tend to plagiarise is the difficulty of the tasks or text difficulties.Campbell, 1990, Keck, 2006, Roig, 1999 and Shi, 2004.

Paragraph Plan: 5%

Choose one of the arguments from your essay plan and fill in the table below. You will need to find some relevant, useful and important quotations that you can copy or paraphrase. Give the full references and page numbers.

In the Comments box you need to say why this quote is important and provide any other information which explains why you have chosen to use it.

Important: You will need at least two different references.              

Paragraph Plan

Argument / topic sentence These students may have different methods of developing and essay back in their home institution.  
Reference 1 for evidence Valentine, K. (2006), ‘Plagiarism as literacy practice: recognizing and rethinking ethical binaries’, College Composition and Communication, vol. (58), no. (1), pp. 89–109  
Page   pp. 89–109Reference 1 for evidence   While there are no research studies reporting a higher incidence of plagiarism among international students studying in English-language universities, there is concern that these students may be more vulnerable to accusations of fraud as their inappropriate textual borrowing is a more obvious departure from their own style of writing (McGowan, 2005, Pecorari, 2003 and Valentine, 2006).    Comments    
Reference 2 for evidence Lillis, T (1999), ‘Whose “common sense”? Essayist literacy and the institutional practice of mystery’, Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues, pp. 127–147.      
Page p. 127Quote or paraphrase These silences about implicit genre rules and conventions are in fact examples of what has been described as the “institutional practice of mystery” that mystify academic writing and thereby work “against those least familiar with the conventions surrounding academic writing”.              Comment

Introduction: 5%

This introduction is your draft introduction for the essay. You will need to include a context, then a narrowing of this context to be more specific about the areas you will write about. The issue will show that there is a problem, controversy or interest in this area. After your thesis, which is the same as in your plan, you will give an overview which tells the reader how the rest of the essay is organised.

_____________________

Along the years there have been a lot of discussions in regards of plagiarism and how to avoid it, in Australia the referencing is very strict and everybody has it implemented in their academic experience since very young. Whatsoever, it is claimed that students who use English as a second language are more likely to plagiarise.

Nevertheless, it is explained in this paper that there that Students that speak English as a second language are more likely to plagiarise due to knowledge, English language skills and difficulty of task/ text difficulty.

This paper will discuss the 3 most important factors that make students that use English as a second language likely to plagiarise. First the knowledge factor will be analysed, afterwards authors that have taken an opinion in the English language skills will be reviewed, as well a study done to international students will be analysed. Finally interviews to international students will be considered.

Preparation Marking Criteria & Feedback Sheet

Grade out of 20

  Student’s name:     Date: 
   Examiner:   
Comments:
           

Assessment criteria

MarkCriteriaAchieved? Yes = aa Partially =a No = r
  Starting Plan
1Appropriate template and essay question  
2Thesis statement 
2Clear Arguments 
2Convincing Evidence 
2Appropriate Sources 
1Clear communication 
  Total  
  Paragraph Plan
1Appropriate organisation and argument 
1Appropriate cut and paste and or paraphrase 
2Insightful comments 
1Full reference given 
  Total  
  Introduction
1Context 
1Narrowing of topic 
1Issue 
 Thesis (same as in plan) 
1Overview 
1Quality of  communication 
  Total  
  Final total 

Starting plan

Essay question Why has it been claimed that students who use English as a second language are more likely to plagiarize?
Thesis statement Students speaking English as a second language are more likely to plagiarize due to inadequate knowledge of grammar, punctuations and spelling making paraphrasing difficult and the development of new ideas difficult. There is also a language barrier among students speaking English as a second language.
Overview The paper seeks to establish the reasons why students speaking English as a second language are likely to plagiarize. The paper explains the reasons why ESL students are less likely to paraphrase. ESL students are uncertain that they can rewrite new ideas and at the same time retain the meaning of the original source. ESL students are also not familiar with the referencing styles, making them use unreferenced sources which amounts plagiarism. The essay also reveals that there is a language barrier that hiders ESL students to write in a second language without plagiarizing.
ArgumentEvidenceResources
ESL students are likely to plagiarize due inadequate knowledge of grammar, punctuations and spelling that makes paraphrasing difficult.Yamada (2013) argues that ESL students take time to learn the structure of English sentences regarding correct grammar, punctuations and spelling.Before foreign students can learn the new language, they in most cases find themselves plagiarizing.For example, the authors argue that ESL students in America take two or more semesters to overcome the problem of plagiarizing their assignments (Graves, 2006).The time that the ESL students take to be conversant with grammar, punctuations and spelling differ from one student to the other.The ease at which foreign students learn to write in correct English also depends on the region or country that the student came from. For example, students from China and India take two semesters to do away with plagiarism problems.Interviews with foreign students reveal that plagiarism is a real challenge, especially before learning how to develop independent ideas.Yamada, K. (2013). What prevents ESL/EFL writers from avoiding plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American college websites. System, 31(2), 247-258.   Abasi, A. R., Akbari, N., & Graves, B. (2006). Discourse appropriation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15(2), 102-117.  
ESL students are not familiar with the referencing system, making them plagiarize their work  Failing to reference one’s work correctly results in plagiarism.Due to an inadequate referencing skill, foreign students in most cases find themselves in the trap of plagiarizing their work (Stephen, 2008).The referencing style in their country of origin may be different from the correct English referencing system.The ideas, concepts and quotes from other people’s work should be correctly referenced to avoid plagiarism. In this regard, foreign students may not be aware of this fact, leaving their work unreferenced yet they extracted main ideas from other people’s work.It is important to note that proper referencing is crucial in quality writing.Stephen F. Austin State University. (2008). A Descriptive Study of Plagiarism in the Writing Assignments of First-year Chinese Students in the American English Language Institute at Stephen F. Austin State University. ProQuest publisher…

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