The Impact of Increased Individualistic Cultures on Leadership of Multinationals in Asia

Research Paper Topic – “21st Century Problems”

  • According to research by Georg Vielmetter and Yvonne Sell, Leadership is about to get more uncomfortable , leaders in the 21st century are facing new challenges such as:   
    • Globalization 2.0
    • Climate Change
    • Increased Individualism
    • Accelerating digitization
    • Advancing technologies
    • Changing Demographics
    •  
  • Chose 1 of the areas listed above and develop a research question that you can explore in your Research Paper which is due later in the term.
    • Using this research question to guide you – find 3 – 5 strong research-based sources to use in your annotated bibliography (due May 19th).
    • Assess each source on the following three things: a brief summary of the main points of the work; some notes about the source’s strengths and research methods; and a reflection on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for your own research paper development.
  • Annotated bibliography will be presented in APA citation style.
  • Only .doc, .docx, .rtf or .txt files can be accepted for grading online
  • Format to include these elements:
    • 1 Topic (e.g. Leadership and Climate change)
    • 2 Research Question (e.g. How can leaders in the fossil fuel energy industry help reduce CO2 emissions in the next 5 years?)
    • 3 Annotations (3 – 5)

Annotated Bibliography

1: Topic: Leadership and Climate Change

2: Research Question: What specific challenges are facing energy industry leaders who are trying to reduce CO2 emissions in the next 5 years and how might these be addressed?

3: Annotations

Slawinski, N., & Bansal, P. (2012) A Matter of Time: The Temporal Perspectives of               Organizational Responses to Climate Change Organization Studies, 33(11), pp.1537-1563. doi:  10.1177/0170840612463319

In this article Slawinski and Bansal argue that time is of the essence when it comes to having a serious impact on climate change. They note that most leaders of large organizations underestimate the time required to make significant changes to business practices. They argue that leaders need to develop a sense of urgency within their organizations if effective change is to be implemented.  (1- key points)

The research method employed in this study was a survey conducted with six major global energy companies. The research was comprehensive and draws upon theoretical concepts of time perception. (2 – research methods)

This paper will aid in answering the research question because it directly addresses specific actions that leaders can take with regard to climate change. (3 – how it will help me in my research)

Next annotation….

The Impact of Increased Individualistic Cultures on Leadership of Multinationals in Asia

Mustafa, G. (2015). The Emergence of Leader-Society Value Congruence : A Cross-Cultural Perspective The Emergence of Leader-Society Value Congruence : A Cross-Cultural Perspective. The Journal of Values- Based Leadership, 8(2).

The study by Mustafa (2015) offers a qualitative review of literature that addresses previous studies on cross-cultural leadership. According to the author, the outcomes of these studies associate leadership with national cultural values, but they fail to consider how the leaders’ individual cultural perspectives affect them within their societal culture in different countries. Mustafa (2015) reviews that national cultures differ significantly in the strength of their influence in harmonizing the societal and individual factors that impact on leadership. In this context, the paper states that collectivistic values are often more internalized than individualist values.  The researcher goes on to allude that there is a strong convergence between the societal level values with those of the individual. Additionally, Mustafa (2015) states that leadership values are more entrenched during the process of socialization because they are culturally applicable, and highlights their connectedness. In this light, this paper alludes to the theoretical approach that is increased in individualism in leadership and helps to explain the role played by the culture of the individual. The paper will be imperative in identifying how individualistic cultures affects the internal beliefs and motive structures of persons in leadership and their ability to influence change and withstand social pressure. The limitation of this paper is that it lacks primary data, but relies on previous research which might have their specific limitations.

Jogulu, U. D. (2010). Culturally-linked leadership styles. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(8).

Jogulu’s (2010) research aims at investigating whether cultural aspects influence the emergence of different leadership styles. The research conducted a primary research that utilized a multifactor leadership questionnaire. Variance and t-tests analysis were employed to differentiate the means of various leadership groups. The study found out that there was a noteworthy difference between leadership styles and cultural groups. According to Jogulu’s (2010), the research implies that variations in leadership styles are as a result of cultural differences, because people hold varying beliefs and assumptions about the features that are perceived to be appropairate for positions of power. The use of this study is appropriate to account for how leadership styles are linked to the individual culture or how they are culturally biased. Subsequently, the study will be imperative in explaining how individualistic cultures influence leadership. The strengths of this research are based on its originality, which offers an empirical understanding of the impact of culture on leadership.

Kumar, R., Anjum, B., & Sinha, A. (2011). Cross-Cultural Interactions and Leadership Behaviour. Researchers World: Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 2(3), 151–160.

Kumar, Anjum, and Sinha (2011) allude that globalization has made it necessary for leaders to be more proficient in cross-cultural awareness and practices. In this context, the authors theorize that culture is dynamic and can be transmitted to others. The qualitative analysis employs a conceptual framework of ethnocentrism and prejudice, as they relate to culture and leadership. Kumar, Anjum, and Sinha (2011) argue that culture offers people a set of values and assumptive beliefs that influence how leaders impact their followers. Using the five key dimensions offered by Hofstede, the researchers allude that business cultures differ across international borders. Additionally, the researchers review that implicit leadership theory identifies that individuals have inherent beliefs and convictions that distinguish one leader from another. The research will be imperative for the study in addressing how individualism varies across countries and how it influences the leadership style employed in a particular organization. The paper lacks primary research approaches, but draws its argument from fundamental cultural and leadership theories, including those presented by Hofstede and Hall.

Irawanto, D. W. (2009). An Analysis Of National Culture And Leadership Practices In Indonesia. Journal of Diversity Management, 4(2), 1–27.

The research by Irawanto (2011) reviews that managers across the world need increased support and new ideas in how they lead. The research draws insights from the ideology that leadership should follow the needs and expectations of the followers. In this light, Irawanto (2011) investigates leadership in Indonesia, which is a collectivist country like many nations in Asia. The author alludes that leading the collectivist communities is different from how individualistic communities in the West are led. The paper uses the Hofstede and GLOBE theoretical approaches to identify the important values among the Indonesian people, and relating them to leadership employed in organizations. The authors allude that effective managers from individualistic cultures must engage in practices that are in line with the cultural values of the Indonesians for businesses to be successful. The study by Irawanto (2011) is imperative in understanding how culture influences the approach to leadership, particularly for expatriates and multinationals operating based on individualistic cultures such as the US. The study will be imperative in offering a critical analysis that addresses the impact of increased individualism that has been influenced by the high volume of managerial literature from the West and the impact of globalization on business in collectivist countries.

Dorfman, P. W., Howell, J. P., Hibino, S., Lee, J. K., Tate, U., & Bautista, A. (1997). Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(3), 233–274.

The review of Dorfman et al. (1997) offers an empirical research that investigates leadership in different countries. The research used 1598 respondents from large multinationals and national companies in the US, Mexico, and Asian Pacific basin, which present varying cultures regarding individualistic and collectivist dimensions. According to the authors, leadership is considered universal across cultures, but the way it is operationalized makes it culturally specific. The study identifies that there are conflicting perspectives in the viewpoint of the transferability of specific leadership behaviors and processes across cultures. The investigation uses countries in North America and Asia to identify the disparities that exist between leadership styles in the respective cultures. The originality of the research makes it an imperative source of information that will help to identify how increased individualistic aspects have influenced leadership entering the 21st century.

References

Dorfman, P. W., Howell, J. P., Hibino, S., Lee, J. K., Tate, U., & Bautista, A. (1997). Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(3), 233–274.

Irawanto, D. W. (2009). An Analysis Of National Culture And Leadership Practices In Indonesia. Journal of Diversity Management, 4(2), 1–27.

Jogulu, U. D. (2010). Culturally-linked leadership styles. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(8).

Kumar, R., Anjum, B., & Sinha, A. (2011). Cross-Cultural Interactions and Leadership Behaviour. Researchers World: Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 2(3), 151–160.

Mustafa, G. (2015). The Emergence of Leader-Society Value Congruence : A Cross-Cultural Perspective The Emergence of Leader-Society Value Congruence : A Cross-Cultural Perspective. The Journal of Values- Based Leadership, 8(2).

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